From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
March 23 in recent years
March 23 is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 283 days remaining until the end of the year.
1174 - Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow.
1568 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. Again Catherine de' Medici and Charles IX of France make substantial concessions to the Huguenots.
1708 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth.
1775 - American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech -"give me liberty or give me death" at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1801 - Tsar Paul I of Russia is struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael's Castle.
1806 - After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their "Corps of Discovery" begin their arduous journey home.
1821 - Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence.
1848 - The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
1857 - Elisha Otis's first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1868 - The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law.
1879 - War of the Pacific was fought between Chile and the joints forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully took over Arica and Tarapacá which left Bolivia as a landlocked country.
1889 - Land Run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
1889 - The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London.
1889 - The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India.
1896 - The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1903 - The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1908 - American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1909 - Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
1919 - In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
1931 - Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev embrace the gallows during the Indian struggle for independence. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused.
1933 - The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 - Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1940 - The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League.
1942 - World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
1956 - Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic in the world. (Republic Day in Pakistan)
1962 - NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace initiative.
1965 - NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States' first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young).
1978 - The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon for peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line.
1980 - Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador gives his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans.
1982 - Guatemala's government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt.
1983 - Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
1989 - Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1994 - At an election rally in Tijuana, Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio is assassinated by Mario Aburto Martínez.
1994 - Aeroflot Flight 593 crashes in Siberia when the pilot's fifteen-year old son accidentally disengages the autopilot, killing 75.
1994 - A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing a group of 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground later to become known as the Green Ramp disaster.
1996 - Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
1999 - Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña.
2001 - The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.
2003 - In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2004 - Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India.
2005 - The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube.
2005 - A major explosion at the Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers.
2006 - The Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply.
2007 - Burnley Tunnel catastrophe occurs in Melbourne, Australia.
2007 - Iranian Navy seize Royal Navy personnel in Iraqi waters.
1429 - Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI of England (d. 1482)
1638 - Frederik Ruysch, Dutch physician and anatomist (d. 1731)
1645 - William Kidd, Scottish sailor (d. 1701)
1699 - John Bartram, American botanist (d. 1777)
1723 - Agha Mohammad Khan Ghajar, King of Iran (d. 1771)
1732 - Marie Adélaïde of France, daughter of Louis XV (d. 1800)
1749 - Pierre Simon de Laplace, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1827)
1754 - Baron Jurij Vega, Slovenian mathematician, physicist, and artillery officer (d. 1802)
1769 - William Smith, English geologist and cartographer (d. 1839)
1769 - Augustin Daniel Belliard, French general (d. 1832)
1823 - Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
1826 - Léon Minkus, German/Czech composer and violinist (d. 1917)
1831 - Eduard Schlagintweit, German writer (d. 1866)
1834 - Julius Reubke, German composer (d. 1858)
1858 - Ludwig Quidde, German pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1941)
1862 - Nathaniel Reed, American outlaw turned evangelist (d. 1950)
1868 - Dietrich Eckart, early supporter of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party and member of Thule Society (d. 1923)
1874 - J. C. Leyendecker, German American Illustrator (d. 1951)
1878 - Franz Schreker, Austrian composer (d. 1934)
1880 - Heikki Ritavuori, Finnish politician (d. 1922)
1881 - Roger Martin du Gard, French writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1958)
1881 - Hermann Staudinger, German chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1965)
1882 - Emmy Noether, German mathematician (d. 1935)
1887 - Juan Gris, Spanish artist (d. 1927)
1887 - Josef Čapek, Czech writer (d. 1945)
1887 - Prince Felix Yussupov, Russian assassin of Rasputin (d. 1967)
1893 - Cedric Gibbons, American art director (d. 1960)
1893 - G. D. Naidu (Gopalaswamy Doraiswamy Naidu), Indian Inventor & Engineer (Edison of India) (d. 1974)
1895 - Encarnacion Alzona, Filipino historian (d. 2001)
1899 - Dora Gerson, German actress and singer (d. 1943)
1900 - Erich Fromm, German-born psychoanalyst (d. 1980)
1904 - H. Beam Piper, American science fiction author (d. 1964)
1905 - Lale Andersen, German singer and cabaretist (d. 1972)
1905 - Joan Crawford, American actress (d. 1977)
1907 - Daniel Bovet, Swiss-born scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1992)
1910 - Akira Kurosawa, Japanese film director (d. 1998)
1912 - Wernher von Braun, German-born physicist and engineer (d. 1977)
1915 - Vasily Zaitsev, Soviet World War II hero (d. 1991)
1919 - Carl Graffunder, mid-century modernist architect
1920 - Neal Smith, former United States Congressman
1920 - Tetsuharu Kawakami, Japanese baseball player and coach
1921 - Donald Campbell, British car and motorboat racer (d. 1967)
1922 - Marty Allen, American comedian and actor
1922 - Ugo Tognazzi, Italian actor, director and screenwriter (d. 1990)
1924 - Bette Nesmith Graham, American inventor (d. 1980)
1925 - David Watkin, English cinematographer (d. 2008)
1929 - Sir Roger Bannister, English runner
1931 - Yevgenij Grishin, Russian speed skater (d. 2005)
1931 - Viktor Korchnoi, Russian chess player
1932 - Don Marshall, Canadian ice hockey player
1933 - Philip Zimbardo, American psychologist, known for the Stanford prison experiment
1934 - Ludvig Faddeev, Russian mathematician
1934 - Fernand Gignac, Canadian singer and actor (d. 2006)
1934 - Mark Rydell, American film and television director
1937 - Craig Breedlove, American land speed record holder
1937 - Robert Gallo, American physician
1938 - Maynard Jackson, first black mayor of Atlanta (d. 2003)
1938 - Dave Pike, American jazz musician
1939 - Pepe Lienhard, Swiss band leader and entertainer
1941 - Jim Trelease, American educator and children's literature author
1942 - Walter Rodney, Guyanese historian and political figure (d. 1980)
1943 - Lee May, former Major League Baseball player
1943 - Nils-Aslak Valkeapää, Finnish writer (d. 2001)
1944 - Michael Nyman, British minimalist composer
1944 - Tony McPhee, English singer and guitarist (The Groundhogs)
1945 - Franco Battiato, Italian singer, songwriter and filmmaker
1945 - David Grisman, American bluegrass musician
1948 - David Olney, American musician
1949 - Ric Ocasek, American musician (The Cars)
1949 - Roland Lee, American Watercolor Artist
1950 - Anthony De Longis, American actor
1950 - Corinne Clery, French actress
1951 - Ron Jaworski, American football player and analyst
1952 - Kim Stanley Robinson, American author
1953 - Bo Diaz, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1990)
1953 - Chaka Khan, American singer
1954 - Geno Auriemma, American basketball coach
1955 - Moses Malone, American basketball player
1955 - Petrea Burchard, American actress
1956 - José Manuel Barroso, Portuguese politician, president of the European Commission
1957 - Amanda Plummer, American actress
1957 - Robbie James, Welsh footballer (d. 1998)
1958 - Etienne De Wilde, Belgian cyclist
1958 - El Duce, American singer and drummer (The Mentors) (d. 1997)
1959 - Catherine Keener, American actress
1959 - Epic Soundtracks, English musician (Swell Maps, Crime and the City Solution, These Immortal Souls) (d. 1997)
1959 - Philippe Volter, Belgian actor (d. 2005)
1960 - Nicol Stephen, Deputy First Minister of Scotland
1961 - Helmi Johannes, Indonesian television newscaster
1962 - Steve Redgrave, British rower, 5 Olympic Gold Medals
1963 - Míchel (José Miguel González Martín), Spanish footballer
1964 - Hope Davis, American actress
1964 - John Pinette, American comedian
1965 - Sarah Buxton, American actress
1965 - Richard Grieco, American actor and singer
1965 - Marti Pellow, Scottish singer
1965 - Gary Whitehead, American poet
1967 - David Ford, Canadian kayaker
1968 - Damon Albarn, English musician (Blur, Gorillaz and The Good, the Bad & the Queen)
1968 - Mitch Cullin, American novelist
1968 - Fernando Hierro, Spanish footballer
1968 - Michael Atherton, English cricketer
1971 - Yasmeen Ghauri, Canadian supermodel
1971 - Karen McDougal, American model
1971 - Gail Porter, British television presenter
1971 - Alexander Selivanov, Russian ice hockey player
1971 - Hiroyoshi Tenzan, Japanese professional wrestler
1972 - Joe Calzaghe, Welsh boxer
1972 - Judith Godrèche, French actress and author
1973 - Jerzy Dudek, Polish footballer
1973 - Wim Eyckmans, Belgian racing driver
1973 - Jason Kidd, American basketball player
1975 - Alydar, American racehorse (d. 1990)
1976 - Michelle Monaghan, American actress
1976 - Dougie Lampkin, English motorcycle trials rider
1976 - Jeremy Newberry, American football player
1976 - Joel Peralta, Dominican baseball player
1976 - Keri Russell, American actress
1976 - Jayson Blair, American journalist and author
1976 - Ricardo Zonta, Brazilian racing car driver
1977 - Jean Carlos Gamarra, Peruvian taekwondo practitioner
1978 - Walter Samuel, Argentine footballer
1978 - Nicholle Tom, American actress
1978 - Perez Hilton, American television personality and blogger
1979 - Mark Buehrle, American baseball player
1979 - Misty Hyman, American swimmer
1979 - Donncha O'Callaghan, Irish International rugby player
1979 - Natalya Baranovskaya, Olympic swimmer
1980 - Russell Howard, British Comedian
1981 - Luciana Carro, Canadian actress
1981 - Erin Crocker, American NASCAR driver
1981 - Tony Peña, Jr., Dominican baseball player
1982 - José Raúl Contreras, Chilean footballer
1983 - Jerome Thomas, English footballer
1985 - Maurice Jones-Drew, American football player
1986 - Farren Ray, Australian Rules Football
1986 - Andrea Dovizioso, Italian motorcycle racer
1986 - Steven Strait, American actor
1990 - Princess Eugenie of York
1995 - Jan Lisiecki, Canadian Pianist
1999 - Prince Beltran of Bulgaria
1103 - Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1058)
1361 - Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster (b. c. 1310)
1369 - King Pedro of Castile (b. 1334)
1548 - Itagaki Nobukata, retainer of Takeda Shingen
1555 - Pope Julius III (b. 1487)
1559 - Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia (killed in battle)
1596 - Henry Unton, English diplomat
1606 - Justus Lipsius, Flemish humanist (b. 1547)
1618 - James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, Scottish politician
1653 - Johan van Galen, Dutch naval officer (b. 1604)
1675 - Anthoni van Noordt, Dutch composer and organist (b. 1619)
1680 - Nicolas Fouquet, French statesman (b. 1615)
1742 - Jean-Baptiste Dubos, French writer (b. 1670)
1747 - Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French soldier (b. 1675)
1748 - Johann Gottfried Walther, German music theorist, organist, and composer (b. 1684)
1754 - Johann Jakob Wettstein, Swiss theologian (b. 1693)
1783 - Charles Caroll, American lawyer and delegate to the Continental Congress (b. 1723)
1801 - Tsar Paul of Russia (b. 1754)
1842 - Stendhal, French writer (b. 1783)
1914 - Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès (Saint Rebecca) Lebanese saint (b. 1832)
1927 - Paul César Helleu, French artist (b. 1859)
1931 - Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev Indian freedom fighters
1935 - Florence Moore, American actress (b. 1886)
1947 - Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (b. 1870)
1955 - Artur da Silva Bernardes, President of Brazil (b. 1875)
1960 - Franklin Pierce Adams, American newspaper columnist (b. 1881)
1964 - Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born actor (b. 1904)
1965 - Mae Murray, American actress (b. 1889)
1968 - Edwin O'Connor, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (b. 1918)
1970 - Del Lord, Canadian director (b. 1894)
1972 - Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish fashion designer (b. 1895)
1979 - Ted Anderson, English footballer (b. 1911)
1980 - Arthur Melvin Okun, American economist (b. 1928)
1982 - Barney Clark, first artificial heart recipient (b. 1921)
1985 - Richard Beeching, chairman of British Railways (b. 1913)
1985 - Peter Charanis, Greek-American scholar and professor (b. 1908)
1985 - Ben Hardwick, Britain's youngest liver transplant patient (b. 1982)
1990 - John Dexter, English stage and film director
1991 - Parkash Singh, Indian soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross (b. 1913)
1992 - Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist, Nobel laureate (b. 1899)
1994 - Luis Donaldo Colosio, Mexican politician (b. 1950)
1994 - Giulietta Masina, Italian actress (b. 1921)
1994 - Donald Swann, British composer, musician and entertainer (b. 1923)
1995 - Alan Barton, English musician (Black Lace, Smokie) (b. 1953)
1995 - Davie Cooper, Scottish footballer (b. 1956)
1998 - Gerald Stano, American serial killer (b. 1951)
1999 - Luis María Argaña, Paraguayan politician (b. ?)
2001 - Rowland Evans, American journalist (b. 1921)
2002 - Eileen Farrell, American soprano (b. 1920)
2002 - Ben Hollioake, English cricketer (b. 1977)
2003 - Fritz Spiegl, Austrian-born journalist (b. 1926)
2004 - Rupert Hamer, Australian politician (b. 1916)
2006 - David B. Bleak, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1932)
2006 - Desmond Doss, American soldier and first conscientious objector Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1919)
2006 - Cindy Walker, American singer, songwriter and dancer (b. 1918)
2007 - Paul J. Cohen, American mathematician, Fields Medal winner (b. 1934)
2007 - Eric Medlen, American NHRA drag racer (b. 1973)
Holidays and observances
Roman Empire - The fifth and final day of Quinquatria, held in honor of Minerva.
Roman Empire - Tubilustrium was held in honor of Mars.
Ancient Latvia - Lieldienas held in honor of Mara and other pagan goddesses.
Pakistan - National Day (Republic Day).
Hungary, Poland - Day of Hungarian-Polish Friendship.
Feast day of the following Roman Catholic saints: